The men who wore the Combined Ops badge had jobs that involved co-operation between the three armed services in joint operations. Indeed their training and their purpose was the product of that co-operation, developed over time and through the experience of earlier landing operations.
The R.A.F.’s 2nd Tactical Air Force had to provide close air support and fighter cover for the ground forces in the spearhead of the invasion. They needed to direct their aircraft from the ground, close to the front line. Also, due to the limited range of fighter aircraft they had to be able to operate from airstrips within the beachhead as soon as possible. In order to provide that support, the R.A.F. needed men and material on the ground from day one of the invasion. To meet the immediate requirements of 2nd T.A.F., a number of R.A.F. units landed on D-Day, all initially under the command of 83 Group which was to be the first group of 2nd T.A.F. to base aircraft in Normandy.
R.A.F. Beach Squadrons came ashore and began to establish themselves in the beach areas to take care of the large quantity of fuel, ammunition, equipment, vehicles and personnel that was going to arrive for the R.A.F. over the coming days and weeks. The R.A.F. Beach Squadrons were part of the combined services beach organisation in the British and Canadian assault areas. Additionally, R.A.F. Beach Balloon Squadrons were also attached to the Beach Sub Areas. They handled the barrage balloons that were intended as a defence against low level air attack.
Also landing on D-Day were advance command and control elements of R.A.F.’s 83 Group and 85 Group (which was responsible for base defence operations). 483 G.C.C. (the Group Control Centre of 83 Group) came ashore on Gold Beach around 17:30 basing itself at Bazenville from D+1. 15083 G.C.I., one of 85 Group’s Ground Control Interception radar units, arrived to help direct fighter defence operations and the H..Q of it’s parent unit, 24 Base Defence Sector, 85 Group landed near Graye-sur-Mer on the afternoon of D-Day and set up shop at Meuvaines on D+1.
Even more surprising to some might be the fact that the R.A.F. landed on Omaha beach on D-Day. Although the American 9th Air Force was providing tactical air support in the American sector, it was the job of 85 Group, 2nd T.A.F. to provide the radar facilities for directing R.A.F. night fighters in defence of the beachheads. The first echelon of 21 Base Defence Sector R.A.F. landed with 15082 G.C.I. at around 17:00 near St Laurent, about one mile to the west of Colleville beach.
The R.A.F. men arriving on D-Day were the first of many to land from the sea. Overnight, the first R.A.F. Regiment units landed and, on the morning of D+1, came the first of the R.A.F. Servicing Commando Units, moving up to the sites chosen for the advanced airstrips that were already being marked out and built by the Army’s Airfield Construction Units. The R.A.F. Servicing Commandos helped to prepare the landing strips and when they were ready, refuelled, re-armed and repaired the aircraft that used them while the light anti-aircraft guns, armoured cars and riflemen of the R.A.F Regiment provided defence. The first landing strips were completed and ready for action within a few days.
In the early days of the invasion the R.A.F. Beach Squadrons facilitated the landing, assembly and onward movement of most of the R.A.F. men and materials that supported the operations of the Tactical Air Force in Normandy. After a few weeks traffic over the beaches diminished and 89 Embarkation Unit, R.A.F. based at Arromanches, where the Mulberry Harbour was established, gradually took over responsibility for the movements of R.A.F. men and materials.
It is quite unsurprising that after a while there was a large R.A.F. presence in Normandy but the landing of R.A.F. units with the assault troops on D-Day is not well known and deserves a little more recognition.
The Normandy invasion (Operation “OVERLORD”) was the famous ‘D-Day’, the greatest amphibious assault operation in history. ”OVERLORD” was the high point of R.A.F involvement in assault landings but it was achieved due to what had been done before. With a little changing of details the piece above could be describing either of the earlier invasions of Sicily or Salerno. For a number of the men in the R.A.F. Beach Squadrons, Normandy was their third D-Day. On the pages of this website you will learn something of the history of R.A.F. beach units and how ‘airmen on the beach’ helped the R.A.F. bring tactical air support to the invasion front line.
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